In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Iranian Health Psychology

Document Type : research


1 Depatment of Psychology, Tehran Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Objective: Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience negative emotions. Considering the importance of these emotions and their significant impact on the mental health of women with HIV, and considering the gap of information in this regard, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of compassion-focused therapy on mindfulness and rumination in women with HIV.
Method: This was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest stages and a control group. Sixty women with HIV were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group received nine 90-min sessions of compassion-focused therapy, once a week. The instruments used included the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ). Patients in both the experimental and control groups filled out the questionnaires in two stages before and after the intervention.
Results: According to the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), compassion-focused therapy significantly increased the mindfulness dimensions (observing, non-judging, non-reactivity to inner experience) in the experimental group, compared with the control group at post-test (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of rumination-reflection.
Conclusion: It appears that compassion-focused therapy would be effective in increasing the mindfulness dimensions in women with HIV.


Article Title [Persian]

اثربخشی درمان متمرکز برشفقت بر ذهن آگاهی و نشخوار فکری در زنان مبتلا به HIV.

Authors [Persian]

  • فرزانه حاجی زاده 1
  • فرناز کشاورزی ارشدی 1
  • فریبا حسنی 1
  • میترا صفا 2

1 گروه روانشناسی، تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 مرکز تحقیقات سل بالینی و اپیدمیولوژی، پژوهشکده سل و بیماریهای ریوی بیمارستان دکتر مسیح دانشوری، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی وخدمات بهداشتی درمانی شهید بهشتی، تهران ایران

Abstract [Persian]

زمینه: زنان مبتلا بهHIV به دنبال بیماری احساسات و هیجانات منفی متعددی را تجربه می کنند. با توجه به اهمیت این هیجانات و تاثیر نیرومند آن بر افزایش سلامت روان زنان مبتلا به HIV و همچنین با توجه به کمبود پژوهش در این زمینه پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین اثربخشی درمان متمرکز بر شفقت بر ذهن آگاهی و نشخوار فکری در زنان مبتلا به HIV انجام شد.
روش: پژوهش حاضر شبه آزمایشی، از نوع پیش آزمون - پس آزمون با گروه کنترل است. 60 نفر زن مبتلا بهHIV با گمارش تصادفی در گروه‌های آزمایش و گروه گواه قرار گرفتند. گروه آزمایش، نه جلسه 90 دقیقه ای اثربخشی درمان متمرکز بر شفقت را هفته ای یکبار دریافت کرد. ابزار اندازگیری، شامل پرسشنامه 5 عاملی ذهن آگاهی( بائر) FFMQ و پرسشنامه نشخوار فکری RRQ (ترانپل و کمپل) بود، که توسط گروه نمونه در دو مرحله قبل و بعد از از مداخله جمع آوری شد.
یافته ها: نتایج تحلیل کواریانس نشان داد، که درمان متمرکز بر شفقت در افزایش ذهن آگاهی در مولفه های (مشاهده، عدم قضاوت، عدم واکنش درونی)(P<0.05) در گروه آزمایش، در مقایسه با گروه کنترل در مرحله پس آزمون موثر می باشد. در مولفه های (توصیف و عمل توام با آگاهی) و در نشخوار فکری بین دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل تفاوتی معناداری مشاهده نشد.
نتایج: به نظر می رسد درمان متمرکز بر شفقت در افزایش برخی از مولفه های ذهن آگاهی زنان مبتلا بهHIV موثر است. بنابراین درمان متمرکز بر شفقت برای افزایش سلامت روان زنان مبتلا بهHIV پیشنهاد می شود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • اثربخشی درمان متمرکز برشفقت بر ذهن آگاهی و نشخوار فکری در زنان مبتلا به HIV
Ahmed Vand , Z., Heydari Nasab, l., & Shiri. (2013). Journal article Validity and Reliability of the Five-Dimensional Mindfulness Questionnaire in Iranian Non-Clinical Samples Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(3).
Alampay, L. P., Tan, L. J. T. G., Tuliao, A. P., Baranek, P., Ofreneo, M. A., Lopez, G. D., . . . Angangco, T. (2020). A pilot randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness program for Filipino children. Mindfulness, 11(2), 303-316.
Arimitsu, K., & Hofmann, S. G. (2015). Cognitions as mediators in the relationship between self-compassion and affect. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 41-48.
Avanessian, E., Naserirad, M., Abrahamian, H., & Anis, S. (2017). Size of Social Network and Probability of Occurrence of HIV/AIDS among Sexually Affected Patients in Behavioral Diseases Consulting Centers. Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion, 5(2), 73-80.
Bistricky, S. L., Gallagher, M. W., Roberts, C. M., Ferris, L., Gonzalez, A. J., & Wetterneck, C. T. (2017). Frequency of interpersonal trauma types, avoidant attachment, self-compassion, and interpersonal competence: A model of persisting posttraumatic symptoms. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 26(6), 608-625.
Bluth, K., Gaylord, S. A., Campo, R. A., Mullarkey, M. C., & Hobbs, L. (2016). Making friends with yourself: A mixed methods pilot study of a mindful self-compassion program for adolescents. Mindfulness, 7(2), 479-492.
Braehler, C., & Neff, K. (2020). Self-compassion in PTSD Emotion in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (pp. 567-596): Elsevier.
Bredemeier, K., Lieblich, S., & Foa, E. B. (2020). Pretreatment levels of rumination predict cognitive-behavioral therapy outcomes in a transdiagnostic sample of adults with anxiety-related disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 102277.
Brion, J. M., Leary, M. R., & Drabkin, A. S. (2014). Self-compassion and reactions to serious illness: The case of HIV. Journal of health psychology, 19(2), 218-229.
Campbell, R., Vansteenkiste, M., Delesie, L., Soenens, B., Tobback, E., Vogelaers, D., & Mariman, A. (2019). The role of basic psychological need satisfaction, sleep, and mindfulness in the health-related quality of life of people living with HIV. Journal of health psychology, 24(4), 535-545.
Chaudhury, S., Bakhla, A. K., & Saini, R. (2016). Prevalence, impact, and management of depression and anxiety in patients with HIV: a review. Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine, 7, 15-30.
Finlay-Jones, A., Xie, Q., Huang, X., Ma, X., & Guo, X. (2018). A pilot study of the 8-week mindful self-compassion training program in a Chinese community sample. Mindfulness, 9(3), 993-1002.
Ghorbani, N., Watson, P., & Hargis, M. B. (2008). Integrative Self-Knowledge Scale: Correlations and incremental validity of a cross-cultural measure developed in Iran and the United States. The Journal of Psychology, 142(4), 395-412.
Gilbert, P. (2009). Introducing compassion-focused therapy. Advances in psychiatric treatment, 15(3), 199-208.
Gilbert, P., & Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self‐criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy: An International Journal of Theory & Practice, 13(6), 353-379.
Homan, K. J. (2016). Self-compassion and psychological well-being in older adults. Journal of Adult Development, 23(2), 111-119.
Illner, S. R. (2019). Laughter Yoga: a positive psychology intervention: user experiences and effects on mental well-being, self-compassion and health promoting behaviors. University of Twente.  
Khan, S., Nair, S., Huynh, A., Chevrier, C., Thalinja, R., Prakash, R., . . . Bhattacharjee, P. (2020). Media, nationalism, and the body: Exploring masculinities, male partner violence, and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in northern Karnataka, India. Global public health, 15(1), 64-82.
Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Comtois, G., & Nicole, L. (2015). Third‐wave strategies for emotion regulation in early psychosis: A pilot study. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 9(1), 76-83.
Mirzaeidoostan, Z., Zargar, Y., & Zandi Payam, A. (2019). The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Death Anxiety and Mental Health in Women With HIV in Abadan City, Iran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 25(1), 2-13.
Neff, K. D., Bluth, K., Tóth-Király, I., Davidson, O., Knox, M. C., Williamson, Z., & Costigan, A. (2020). Development and validation of the Self-Compassion Scale for Youth. Journal of personality assessment, 1-14.
Neff, K. D., Kirkpatrick, K. L., & Rude, S. S. (2007). Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of research in personality, 41(1), 139-154.
Nery-Hurwit, M., Yun, J., & Ebbeck, V. (2018). Examining the roles of self-compassion and resilience on health-related quality of life for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis. Disability and health journal, 11(2), 256-261.
Paudel, V., & Baral, K. P. (2015). Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA), battling stigma, discrimination and denial and the role of support groups as a coping strategy: a review of literature. Reproductive health, 12(1), 53.
Pu, H., Hernandez, T., Sadeghi, J., & Cervia, J. S. (2020). Systematic review of cognitive behavior therapy to improve mental health of women living with HIV. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 68(1), 30-36.
Raab, K. (2014). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and empathy among health care professionals: a review of the literature. Journal of health care chaplaincy, 20(3), 95-108.
Raes, F. (2010). Rumination and worry as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depression and anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(6), 757-761.
rahmani S, mohamadpour S, & F, t. (1019). The Effectiveness of Mind-Fullness Based Cognitive therapy on Depression, Anxiety, Perceived Stress and Quality of Life in Women with HIV. . CPAP, 16.
sadeghi firoozabadi, v. (2020). The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy on Improving Metacognitive Beliefs in Preventing Relapse of Women Consuming Stimulants. Biquarterly Iranian Journal of Health Psychology, 2(2), 127-135. doi:10.30473/ijohp.2020.52538.1075
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. (2014). The psychotherapeutic applications of loving-kindness and compassion meditation.
Silverman, J. G., Decker, M. R., Saggurti, N., Balaiah, D., & Raj, A. (2008). Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among married Indian women. Jama, 300(6), 703-710.
Siuki, H. A., Peyman, N., Vahedian-Shahroodi, M., Gholian-Aval, M., & Tehrani, H. (2019). Health education intervention on HIV/AIDS prevention behaviors among health volunteers in healthcare centers: An applying the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Social Service Research, 45(4), 582-588.
Sizemore, K. M., Samrock, S., Gray, S., Marcotte, D., & Rendina, H. J. (2020). Testing Mindful Awareness as a Moderator in the Association Between HIV-Related Stress and Drug and Alcohol Use Problems Among People Living with HIV. Mindfulness, 1-11.
Travaglini, L. E., Himelhoch, S. S., & Fang, L. J. (2018). HIV stigma and its relation to mental, physical and social health among Black women living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS and Behavior, 22(12), 3783-3794.
Wielgosz, J., Goldberg, S. B., Kral, T. R., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2019). Mindfulness meditation and psychopathology. Annual review of clinical psychology, 15, 285-316.
Yang, X. (2016). Self-compassion, relationship harmony, versus self-enhancement: Different ways of relating to well-being in Hong Kong Chinese. Personality and Individual Differences, 89, 24-27.