In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Iranian Health Psychology

Document Type : research


1 Associate Professor of social work, Department of social work, Faculty of social sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Faculty of social sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of social work, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Objective: Although HIV-infected women in Iran face many problems, research in this area is limited. This research aims to understand and deeply comprehend the issues and challenges HIV-infected women encounter.
Method: Qualitative research method and content analysis were applied in this study. The participants of the research were HIV-infected women referred to three Supportive Health Centers in Tehran. Among them, 17 participants were selected through the convenience sampling method. The data collection technique was a semi-structured in-depth interview. The collected data were coded and interpreted using thematic analysis.
Results: The results of the interview analysis revealed six categories of "social exclusion", "job problems", "social phobia caused by stigma", "mental problems", "treatment problems", and “coping mechanisms”.
Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that HIV-infected women face many challenges in their individual and social life for social integration and reducing their problems; besides, individual empowerment, structural, and social interventions are also essential. The results of this study can be used in policy-making, the presentation of supportive programs, and social services for HIV-infected women and their families.


Article Title [Persian]

تبیین مشکلات و چالش های زنان مبتلا به HIV: یک مطالعه کیفی

Authors [Persian]

  • منصور فتحی 1
  • مریم عباسی 2
  • مریم خاک رنگین 3

1 دانشیار گروه مددکاری اجتماعی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 کارشناس ارشد مددکاری اجتماعی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

3 گروه مددکاری اجتماعی دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی

Abstract [Persian]

مقدمه: اگرچه زنان مبتلا به اچ آی وی با مشکلات متعددی مواجه هستند اما پژوهش های انجام گرفته در ایران در این زمینه محدود است. این پژوهش به دنبال درک و فهم مسایل و چالش های زنان مبتلا به اچ آی وی است.
روش: روش مطالعه تحلیل محتوای کیفی است و مشارکت کنندگان در تحقیق زنان مبتلا به اچ آی وی استفاده کننده از خدمات درمان و کاهش آسیب در تهران هستند. تعداد مشارکت کنندگان 17 نفر است که با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند. تکنیک گردآوری اطلاعات، مصاحبه عمیق نیمه ساختاریافته و روش تحلیل اطلاعات، تماتیک است. با استفاده از تحلیل تماتیک، داده های این مطالعه کدگذاری و تفسیر شدند.
یافته ها: 6 درون مایه ی اصلی از مصاحبه ها به دست آمد که عبارتند : "طرد اجتماعی "، " داغ اجتماعی"، " انزوای اجتماعی"، "مشکلات روانی "، "کمبود منابع و امکانات"، و "مشکلات درمان".
نتیجه گیری: یافته های این مطالعه نشان می دهد که زنان مبتلا به اچ آی وی با چالش های زیادی در حوزه فردی و اجتماعی مواجه هستند. مشکلات جسمی تنها بخشی از مشکلات این افراد است. این بیماری چالش های زیادی به خصوص از نظر اجتماعی برای مبتلایان به همراه دارد. نتایج این مطالعه می تواند در حوزه سیاست گذاری و ارائه برنامه های حمایتی و خدمات اجتماعی جهت مبتلایان به اچ آی وی و خانواده های آنان مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • اچ ای وی؛ زنان؛ چالش ها
  • داغ ننگ؛ سلامت
Abdekhodaie, Z., Shahidi, S., Mazaheri, M., panaghi, L., Nejati, V. (2018). Psychological strategies to deal with illness in patient with multiple sclerosis: a phenomenological study. Quarterly Journal of Health Psychology, 6(24), 7-30.
Audet, C. M., McGowan, C. C., Wallston, K. A., & Kipp, A. M. (2013). Relationship between HIV stigma and self-isolation among people living with HIV in Tennessee. PloS one, 8(8), e69564.
Berger, B. E., Ferrans, C. E., & Lashley, F. R. (2001). Measuring stigma in people with HIV: psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale. Research in nursing & health, 24(6), 518–529.
Brown, L., Macintyre, K., & Trujillo, L. (2003). Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: what have we learned? AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education, 15(1), 49–69.
Bunting S. M. (1996). Sources of the stigma associated with women with HIV. ANS. Advances in nursing science, 19(2), 64–73.
Arias-Colmenero, T., Pérez-Morente, M. Á., Ramos-Morcillo, A. J., Capilla-Díaz, C., Ruzafa-Martínez, M., & Hueso-Montoro, C. (2020). Experiences and Attitudes of People with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(2), 639.
Castro, A., & Farmer, P. (2005). Understanding and addressing AIDS-related stigma: from anthropological theory to clinical practice in Haiti. American journal of public health, 95(1), 53–59.
Center for Infectious Diseases Management, Ministry of Health of Iran, (2018), Accessibility verified July 20, 2018.
Colbert, A. M., Kim, K. H., Sereika, S. M., & Erlen, J. A. (2010). An examination of the relationships among gender, health status, social support, and HIV-related stigma. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC, 21(4), 302–313.
Cook, J. A., Cohen, M. H., Grey, D., Kirstein, L., Burke, J., Anastos, K., Palacio, H., Richardson, J., Wilson, T. E., & Young, M. (2002). Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV-seropositive women. American journal of public health, 92(1), 82–87.
Darlington, C. K., & Hutson, S. P. (2017). Understanding HIV-Related Stigma among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review. AIDS and Behavior, 21(1), 12–26.
Earnshaw, V. A., Smith, L. R., Chaudoir, S. R., Amico, K. R., & Copenhaver, M. M. (2013). HIV stigma mechanisms and well-being among PLWH: a test of the HIV stigma framework. AIDS and Behavior, 17(5), 1785–1795.
Fathi, M., Khakrangin, M., Haghdin, M., & Janadleh, A. (2020). Exploring the problems and needs of women whose spouses are involved in substance use: a qualitative research study in an Iranian context. Journal of substance use. 25(4).
Fortenberry, J. D., McFarlane, M., Bleakley, A., Bull, S., Fishbein, M., Grimley, D. M., Malotte, C. K., & Stoner, B. P. (2002). Relationships of stigma and shame to gonorrhea and HIV screening. American journal of public health, 92(3), 378–381.
Heckman, T. G. (2003). The chronic illness quality of life (CIQOL) model: Explaining life satisfaction in people living with HIV disease. Health Psychology, 22(2), 140–147.
Herek, G. M., Capitanio, J. P., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1991-1999. American journal of public health, 92(3), 371–377.
Ingersoll K. (2004). The impact of psychiatric symptoms, drug use, and medication regimen on non-adherence to HIV treatment. AIDS care, 16(2), 199–211.
Ji, G., Li, L., Lin, C., & Sun, S. (2007). The impact of HIV/AIDS on families and children--a study in China. AIDS (London, England), 21 Suppl 8(Suppl 8), S157–S161.
Kalichman, S. C., & Simbayi, L. C. (2003). HIV testing attitudes, AIDS stigma, and voluntary HIV counseling and testing in a black township in Cape Town, South Africa. Sexually transmitted infections, 79(6), 442–447.
Kisigo, GA., Ngocho, JS., Knettel, BA., Oshosen, M., Mmbaga, BT & Watt MH (2020)“At home, no one knows”: A qualitative study of retention challenges among women living with HIV in Tanzania. PLoS ONE 15(8): e0238232. https://
Moskowitz, J. T., Hult, J. R., Bussolari, C., & Acree, M. (2009). What works in coping with HIV? A meta-analysis with implications for coping with serious illness. Psychological Bulletin, 135(1), 121–141.
Orford, J., Vellemanb, R., Natera, G., Templeton, L., & Copello, A. (2013). Addiction in the family is a major but neglected contributor to the global burden of adult ill-health. Journal of Social Science & Medicine, 78, 70–77. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.11.036.
Oskouie, F., Kashefi, F., Rafii, F., & Gouya, M. M. (2017). Barriers to self-care in women of reproductive age with HIV/AIDS in Iran: a qualitative study. The Pan African medical journal, 28, 231.
Parker, R., & Aggleton, P. (2003). HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: a conceptual framework and implications for action. Social science & medicine (1982), 57(1), 13–24. (02)00304-0.
Rueda, S., Mitra, S., Chen, S., Gogolishvili, D., Globerman, J., Chambers, L., Wilson, M., Logie, C. H., Shi, Q., Morassaei, S., & Rourke, S. B. (2016). Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses. BMJ Open, 6(7), e011453.
Rasoolzadegan, G., Agahheris, M, & Karbalai, S, (2020). Comparison of Quality of Life and Mental Well-Being in Myocardial Infarction Patients and Healthy People, Iranian Journal of Health Psychology, 3(1), 43-52. doi: 10.30473/ijohp.2020.48339.1057.
Kalateh Sadati A, Taheri V, Joulaei H, Hemmati S. (2019) Experience of Stigma by Women Infected with HIV by Their Husbands: A Qualitative Study. Int J High-Risk Behav Addict. 8(1):e69185. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.69185.
Schmitz, M. F., & Crystal, S. (2000). Social relations, coping, and psychological distress among persons with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(4), 665–683.
Simbayi, L. C., Kalichman, S., Strebel, A., Cloete, A., Henda, N., & Mqeketo, A. (2007). Internalized stigma, discrimination, and depression among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa. Social science & medicine (1982), 64(9), 1823–1831.
Taylor, S. E., & Stanton, A. L. (2007). Coping resources, coping processes, and mental health. Annual review of clinical psychology, 3, 377–401.
UNAIDS. (2017). ‘Agenda for zero discrimination in health-care settings. Available at 2017/2017-agenda-zero- discrimination-health-care. Accessibility verified May 10, 2018.
Sweileh W. M. (2019). Bibliometric analysis of literature in AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Translational behavioral medicine, 9(4), 617–628.
World Health Organization. (2018). HIV/AIDS. Key Facts. Available at http://www. Accessibility verified May 10, 2018.