In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Iranian Health Psychology

Document Type : research


1 Department of Humanities, Southeast University, Nanjing, China

2 Department of Management and Finance, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Neyshabur Brand, Islamic Azad, Neyshabur Iran


Objective: While previous research studies primarily focused on younger populations, this study compared the relationship between Instagram use and the mental health of both young and older women who were quarantined because of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Method: Data were collected using Google Form from March 1 to May 5, 2020. A total of 389 women from Mashhad City in Iran participated in the study and completed a questionnaire regarding their daily Instagram usage and a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28).
Results: Older users’ daily Instagram use was not significantly different from that of younger users [t (382) = 0.98, p = 0.33]. Furthermore, results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between daily Instagram use and young users’ mental health levels [r (352) = 0.23, p=0.00]. Finally, there was no significant correlation between daily Instagram use and old users’ mental health levels [r (28) = -0.20, p = 0.28].
Conclusion: The findings advance an understanding of Instagram use among younger and older adults and highlight the correlation between Instagram use and mental health. The results can inform future technological interventions that are designed to help younger and older adults who may have better access to social benefits via SNS platforms, particularly in specific circumstances, such as those brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Article Title [Persian]

پاندمی کووید 19, کاربران اینستاگرام و سلامت روان زنان

Authors [Persian]

  • راضیه کمال 1
  • راضیه رحمانی 2
  • هدی نداف شرق 3

1 دانشکده،علوم انسانی،دپارتمان روان شناسی،دانشگاه سوت ایست، شهر نانجینگ، چین

2 دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی ،تهران، ایران

3 دانشکده روانشناسی دانشگاه آزاد نیشابور

Keywords [Persian]

  • کوید19؛ استفاده از اینستاگرام؛ سلامت ذهنی
  • سلامت
Alipour, A., Ghadami, A., Alipour, Z., & Abdollahzadeh, H. (2020). Preliminary validation of the Corona Disease Anxiety Scale (CDAS) in the Iranian sample. Quarterly Journal of Health Psychology, 8(32), 163-175. 10.30473/HPJ.2020.52023.4756
Apaolaza, V., Hartmann, P., Medina, E., Barrutia, J. M., & Echebarria, C. (2013). The relationship between socializing on the Spanish online networking site Tuenti and teenagers’ subjective wellbeing: The roles of self-esteem and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1282-1289. 
Basilisco, R., & Cha, K. J. (2015). Uses and gratification motivation for using Facebook and the impact of Facebook usage on social capital and life satisfaction among Filipino users. International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications, 9(4), 181-194.
Binstock, R. H., George, L. K., Cutler, S. J., Hendricks, J., & Schulz, J. H. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of aging and the social sciences. Elsevier.
Bosak, K., & Park, S. H. (2018). Characteristics of Adults’ Use of Facebook and the Potential Impact on Health Behavior: Secondary Data Analysis. Interactive journal of medical research, 7(1), e11. http://10.2196/ijmr.9554
Chandiramani, K., & Sharma, D. (2018). Age and Gender Differences in Face book Intensity and Self Esteem. Journal of Humanities And Social Science, 23(3), 4. 10.9790/0837-2303047079
Chang, P. F., Choi, Y. H., Bazarova, N. N., & Löckenhoff, C. E. (2015). Age differences in online social networking: Extending socioemotional selectivity theory to social network sites. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 59(2), 221-239.
de Lenne, O., Vandenbosch, L., Eggermont, S., Karsay, K., & Trekels, J. (2020). Picture-perfect lives on social media: a cross-national study on the role of media ideals in adolescent well-being. Media Psychology, 23(1), 52-78.
Eisazadeh, F., Aliakbari Dehkordi, M., & Aghajanbigloo, S. (2020). Psychological consequences of patients with coronavirus (COVID-19): A Qualitative Study. Biquarterly Iranian Journal of Health Psychology, 2(2), 9-20. 10.30473/IJOHP.2020.52395.1074
Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of computer-mediated communication, 12(4), 1143-1168.
Farahani, H. A., Kazemi, Z., Aghamohamadi, S., Bakhtiarvand, F., & Ansari, M. (2011). Examining mental health indices in students using Facebook in Iran. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28, 811-814.
Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2017). Browsing, posting, and liking on Instagram: The reciprocal relationships between different types of Instagram use and adolescents' depressed mood. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 20(10), 603–609.
Gonzales, A. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2011). Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: Effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, behavior, and social networking, 14(1-2), 79-83.
Grieve, R., Indian, M., Witteveen, K., Tolan, G. A., & Marrington, J. (2013) Face-to-face or Facebook: Can social connectedness be derived online?. Computers in human behavior, 29(3), 604-609.
Huxhold, O., Fiori, K. L., & Windsor, T. D. (2013). The dynamic interplay of social network characteristics, subjective well-being, and health: The costs and benefits of socio-emotional selectivity. Psychology and aging, 28(1), 3.
Indian, M., & Grieve, R. (2014). When Facebook is easier than face-to-face: Social support derived from Facebook in socially anxious individuals. Personality and individual differences, 59:102-106.
Keresteš, G., & Štulhofer, A. (2020). Adolescents’ online social network use and life satisfaction: A latent growth curve modeling approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 104, 106187.
Kim, C., & Shen, C. (2020). Connecting activities on Social Network Sites and life satisfaction: A comparison of older and younger users. Computers in Human Behavior, 105, 106222. https://doi:10.22074/ijfs.2020.5684
Krasnova, H., Wenninger, H., Widjaja, T., & Buxmann, P. (2013). Envy on Facebook: a hidden threat to users' life satisfaction?. 11th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (pp.1477–1491), Leipzig, Germany.
Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., Lee, D. S., Lin, N., … Ybarra, O. (2013).Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults. PLoS ONE, 8(8).
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social networking sites and addiction: Ten lessons learned. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(3), 311.
Lee, G., Lee, J., & Kwon, S. (2011). Use of social-networking sites and subjective well-being: A study in South Korea. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(3), 151-155.
Labrague, L. J. (2014). Facebook use and adolescents’ emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress. Health Science Journal, 8(1), 80–89.
Lin, L. Y., Sidani, J. E., Shensa, A., Radovic, A., Miller, E., Colditz, J. B., ... & Primack, B. A. (2016). Association between social media use and depression among US young adults. Depression and anxiety, 33(4), 323-331.
Longobardi, C., Settanni, M., Fabris, M. A., & Marengo, D. (2020). Follow or be followed: Exploring the links between Instagram popularity, social media addiction, cyber victimization, and subjective happiness in Italian adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 104955.
Lup, K., Trub, L., & Rosenthal, L. (2015). Instagram# instasad?: exploring associations among instagram use, depressive symptoms, negative social comparison, and strangers followed. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking18(5), 247-252.
Mackson, S. B., Brochu, P. M., & Schneider, B. A. (2019). Instagram: Friend or foe? The application’s association with psychological well-being. New Media & Society, 21(10), 2160–2182.
Mamun, M. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). First COVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh due to fear of COVID-19 and xenophobia: Possible suicide prevention strategies. Asian journal of psychiatry, 51, 102073.
Marengo, D., Longobardi, C., Fabris, M. A., & Settanni, M. (2018). Highly-visual social media and internalizing symptoms in adolescence: The mediating role of body image concerns. Computers in Human Behavior, 82, 63–69.
Mirzai, M., & Shams, M. (2007). Demography of aged people in Iran based on censuses of population from 1325-1385. Iranian Journal of Ageing, 2(3), 326-31.
Morris, M. E., Adair, B., Ozanne, E., Kurowski, W., Miller, K. J., Pearce, A. J., ... & Said, C. M. (2014). Smart technologies to enhance social connectedness in older people who live at home. Australasian journal on ageing, 33(3), 142-152.
Murrieta, J., Frye, C. C., Sun, L., Ly, L. G., Cochancela, C. S., & Eikey, E. V. (2018). Depression: Findings from a literature review of 10 years of social media and depression research. In G. Chowdhury, J. McLeod, V. Gillet, & P. Willett (Eds.), Transforming digital worlds iConference (pp. 47–56). New York: Springer.
Nazifi, M., Mokarami, H. R., Akbaritabar, A. K., FarajiKujerdi, M., Tabrizi, R., & Rahi, A. (2014). Reliability, validity and factor structure of the persian translation of general health questionnire (ghq-28) in hospitals of kerman university of medical sciences. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences3(4), 336-342.
Orsal, O., Orsal, O., Unsal, A., & Ozalp, S. S. (2013). Evaluation of internet addiction and depression among university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 82, 445-454.
Paltasingh, T., & Tyagi, R. (2012). Demographic transition and population ageing: Building an inclusive culture. Social Change, 42(3), 391-409.
Pinquart, M., & Sörensen, S. (2000). Influences of socioeconomic status, social network, and competence on subjective well-being in later life: a meta-analysis. Psychology and aging, 15(2), 187.
Pantic, I., Damjanovic, A., Todorovic, J., Topalovic, D., Bojovic-Jovic, D., Ristic, S., & Pantic, S. (2012). Association between online social networking and depression in high school students: behavioral physiology viewpoint. Psychiatria Danubina, 24(1.), 90-93. UserDocsImages/pdf/dnb_vol24_no1/dnb_vol24_no1_90.pdf
Pittman, M., & Reich, B. (2016). Social media and loneliness: Why an Instagram picture may be worth more than a thousand Twitter words. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 155-167.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, H., & Lewis, R. F. (2015). Frequent use of social networking sites is associated with poor psychological functioning among children and adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(7), 380-385. https://10.1089/cyber.2015.0055
Statista. (2020, April, 5). Number of social media users worldwide from 2010 to 2023 (in billions). Retrieved May 8, 2020 from social-network-users/.
Stieger, S. (2019). Facebook usage and life satisfaction. Frontiers in psychology, 10.
Trifiro, B. (2018), 'Instagram use and its effect on well-being and self-esteem', [Master's of Arts in Communication thesis, University of Bryant]. University of Bryant]. University of Birmingham eThesis Repository.
Twenge, J. M., Martin, G. N., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Decreases in psychological well-being among American adolescents after 2012 and links to screen time during the rise of smartphone technology. Emotion, 18(6), 765–780.
Valenzuela, S., Park, N., & Kee, K. F. (2009). Is there social capital in a social network site?: Facebook use and college students' life satisfaction, trust, and participation. Journal of computer-mediated communication, 14(4), 875-901.
Valkenburg, P. M., Peter, J., & Schouten, A. P. (2006). Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents' well-being and social self-esteem. CyberPsychology & behavior, 9(5), 584-590.
Verduyn, P., Ybarra, O., Résibois, M., Jonides, J., & Kross, E. (2017). Do social network sites enhance or undermine subjective well‐being? A critical review. Social Issues and Policy Review, 11(1), 274-302.
Wiggins, R. D., Higgs, P. F., Hyde, M., & Blane, D. B. (2004). Quality of life in the third age: key predictors of the CASP-19 measure. Ageing & Society, 24(5), 693-708.
Wright, K. B., Rosenberg, J., Egbert, N., Ploeger, N. A., Bernard, D. R., & King, S. (2013). Communication competence, social support, and depression among college students: A model of Facebook and face-to-face support network influence. Journal of health communication, 18(1), 41-57.
Yazdi, M. S., Nasiri, R., Jomei, M. G., & Yazdi, S. S. (2020). Quality of life and general health in pregnant women conceived with assisted reproduction technologies: a case-control study. International Journal of Fertility & Sterility, 13(4), 271. doi: 10.22074/ijfs.2020.5684
Yu, R. P., Ellison, N. B., & Lampe, C. (2018). Facebook use and its role in shaping access to social benefits among older adults. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 62(1), 71-90.
Yu, R. P., Mccammon, R. J., Ellison, N. B., & Langa, K. M. (2016). The relationships that matter: Social network site use and social wellbeing among older adults in the United States of America. Ageing & Society, 36(9), 1826-1852.
Yurdagül, C., Kircaburun, K., Emirtekin, E., Wang, P., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). Psychopathological consequences related to problematic Instagram use among adolescents: The mediating role of body image dissatisfaction and moderating role of gender. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-13.