In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Iranian Health Psychology

Document Type : research


Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Payam noor University, Tehran, Iran.


Objective: Corona disease (COVID-19) is a contagious disease. This disease, with such a global spread, has caused many disorders in people. Among disorders caused by coronavirus, anxiety and depression are the most common ones. One of the ways to deal with depression and anxiety is positive thinking. Positive thinking is a positive way to focus the mind on something constructive, thus removing negative and destructive thoughts and emotions. Therefore, this research was conducted to reduce anxiety and depression and increase self-efficacy in students who have recovered from the coronavirus.
Method: The research method was semi-experimental with a post-test-post-test-follow-up design with a control group, and the target population was students who had recovered from Corona. Of these, 40 people were purposefully selected as samples based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly divided into two groups of 20 people. To collect data from the beginning and before the training, Goldberg's depression questionnaire (1972), Spielberger's test anxiety questionnaire (1983), and Scherer and Mardox's self-efficacy questionnaire (1982) were used. Also, in this research, positive thinking training intervention was administered during 14 one-hour sessions. Covariance and correlation methods were used to analyze data. The correlation between the results of the experimental and control groups in the post-test and pre-test stages and the follow-up phase was obtained and compared with each other.
 Results: The results showed that positive thinking training affected self-efficacy (P=0.001), reduced depression (P=0.01), and decreased anxiety (P=0.01) of students who recovered from Coronavirus.                                                                                           
Conclusion: Teaching positive thinking skills has been effective and has increased self-efficacy, reduced anxiety, and reduced depression in patients who have recovered from Corona.


Article Title [Persian]

اثربخشی آموزش مثبت‌اندیشی بر خودکارآمدی و کاهش افسردگی و اضطراب دانشجویان بهبودیافته کرونایی در شرایط کرونا

Author [Persian]

  • پروین میرزایی

Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Payam noor University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract [Persian]

مقدمه: بیماری کرونا (کووید-19) عنوان یک بیماری مسری است اکنون تمام سطوح زندگی انسانی را در برگرفته است. این بیماری با چنین گستردگی جهانی، اختلال های متعددی را در افراد ایجاد کرده است در واقع اختلال های ناشی از بیماری کرونا در بیشتر موارد اضطراب و استرس می باشند. یکی از روش های مقابله با افسردگی و اضطراب مثبت اندیشی می باشد. مثبت اندیشی شیوه یا تمرکز مثبت ذهن فرد بر روی چیزی سازنده و خوب است و بنابراین تفکرات و عواطف منفی یا مخرب را از آن حذف می کند.
روش کار: پژوهش حاضر یک پژوهش مداخله ای بوده و جامعه هدف دانشجویان دارای پرونده در دسترس تعیین بود. تعداد حجم نمونه 40 نفر بوده و بیماران به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه 20 نفری؛ آزمایشی و کنترل قرار گرفتند. روش نمونه گیری در درسترس بر اساس معیارهای ورودی و خروجی بود. در این پژوهش از مداخله آموزش مثبت اندیشی استفاده شد. روش سنجش تاثیر مداخله پرسش نامه بوده و به صورت طرح پیش آزمون-پس آزمون اجرا شد.
نتایج: 22 نفر (55%) از پاسخگویان را مردان تشکیل داده اند و 18 نفر (45%) نیز زنان بوده اند. 75% شرکت کنندگان در رده سنی 45-25 بودند. همچنین 57.5% آنها دارای شغل آزاد بوده و 26 نفر از آنها (65%) نوع بیماریشان متوسط بوده است. نتایج نشان داد که آموزش مثبت اندیشی بر خودکارآمدی (P=0.00) ، کاهش افسردگی (P=0.00) و کاهش اضطراب (P=0.00) دانشجویان بهبود یافته از کرونا در شرایط کرونا تاثیر گذار بوده است.
نتیجه گیری: آموزش مهارتهای مثبت اندیشی موثر بوده و موجب افزایش خودکارآمدی، کاهش اضطراب و کاهش افسردگی بیماران بهبود یافته از کرونا شده است و این نتایج بدست آمده با مطالعات پیشین در این زمینه هماهنگ است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • مثبت‌اندیشی
  • خودکارآمدی
  • افسردگی و اضطراب
  • کرونا
Adalat, Azadeh, Makundi, Behnam. (2017). the effectiveness of positive thinking training on stress, mental rumination and body image concern in mastectomized women, Journal of Rehabilitation Research in Nursing, Volume 6, Number 1, Pages 70-76.
Alipour, Ahmad, Kadami, Alwalfazl, Alipour, Zahra, Abdulzadeh, Hassan.(2018). preliminary validation of the CDAS Corona Disease Anxiety Scale in an Iranian sample, Alaki Journal of Health Psychology, year 8, number 4, pages 163-175.
 Alizadeh Fard, Susan; Safarinia, Majid (2019). Prediction of mental health based on anxiety and social solidarity caused by corona disease, social psychology researches, 36.
Arash V.( 2015).  Teaching positive thinking skills on self-efficacy and self-esteem of disabled people, First International Conference on Psychology and Behavioral Sciences.
Bajema K.L., Oster A.M., McGovern O.L.Persons Evaluated for . Novel Coronavirus —United States,MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: February 7, 2020;. DOI: 6e1.
Beato, A.F., da Costa, L.P., Nogueira, R .(2021). Everything Is Gonna BeAlright with Me”: The Role of SelfCompassion, Affect, and Coping inNegativeEmotionalSymptomsduringcoronavirus Health,18(4)
Bilgel N., N. Bayram. Turkish Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42): Psychometric Properties.  Archives of Neuropsychiatry(2018); 47: 118-26.
 Bojnordy A.( 2020). Prediction of corona anxiety based on cognitive emotion regulation strategies, health stubbornness and death anxiety in diabetic patients, Journal of Psychiatric Nursing. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing;8(2):34-44.
Brydon L, Walker C, Wawrzyniak AJ, Chart H, Steptoe A. (2009). Dispositional optimism and stress-induced changes in immunity and negative mood. Brain, behavior, and immunity;23(6):6-810.
Chen Q, Liang M, Li Y, Guo J, Fei D, Wang L, et al. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(4):e15-e6.
Dai L-L, Wang X, Jiang T-C, Li P-F, Wang Y, Wu S-J, et al. (2020). Anxiety and depressive symptoms among COVID-19patients in Jianghan Fangcang Shelter Hospital in Wuhan, China, Plos one;15(8):e0238416.
Delavar A. (2014). The effectiveness of teaching positive thinking skills on increasing the self-efficacy of female students. Thesis.
Eagleson C, Hayes S, Mathews A, Perman G, Hirsch CR. (2016). The power of positive thinking: Pathological worry is reduced by thought replacement in Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Behaviour research and therapy;8-78:13.
Eisazadeh, Aliakbari Dehkordi, &Aghajanbigloo .(2020). The relationship of perceptionDisease control and risk perception with one's own behaviorsCare in those discharged from the hospital due toCovid-19: ath analysis study. research inPsychological health14(1):103-114.  
Emami M, Pirani, Heydari. (2019). The effect of positive psychology education on self-efficacy and psychological toughness of female students, Family and Research Quarterly.Family and Research Quarterly;16(2):67-82.
 Fard A, Nia S.(2020).Prediction of mental health based on anxiety and social solidarity caused by corona disease, Social psychology research.Social psychology research;9(36):129-41. Haririyan, Zahra; Fahima Fahiminejad and Atefe Sajidnia (2018). Positive psychology is a new step in creating growing organizations, the third international research conference in psychology, counseling and educational sciences, the permanent secretariat of the conference. Ghafarzadeh Rezaghi, Mohammad Reza (2019). Psychological and social support in disasters and unexpected events, how to face the corona virus effectively psychologically, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Volume 22, Number 1, Pages 1-11 
Hassanshahi MM.( 2002). The relationship between optimism and coping strategies in university students. J Fundam Ment Health;4(15):98-86.
Hosseinzadeh-Shanjani Z, Hajimiri K, Rostami B, Ramazani S, Dadashi M.( 2020). Stress, anxiety, and depression levels among healthcare staff during the COVID-19 epidemic. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience;11(2):163.
Jung JY, Oh YH, Oh KS, Suh DW, Shin YC, Kim HJ.( 2007). Positive-thinking and life satisfaction amongst Koreans, Yonsei medical journal;48(3): 8-371.
Levin JS, Vanderpool HY.(1987). Is frequent religious attendance really conducive to better health?: Toward an epidemiology of religion. Social Science & Medicine;24(7): 600589.
Malesza, M., Kaczmarek, M.C. (2021).Predictors of Anxiety During TheCOVID-19 Pandemic in Poland.Personality and IndividualDifferences, 15 (170), 1-6. 110419.
Mamun, M. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). FirstCOVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh due to fearof COVID-19 and xenophobia: Possible suicideprevention strategies. Asian journal of psychiatry, 51, 102073.
McIntosh K, Hirsch MS, Bloom A.(2020). Coronavirus disease  (COVID-19). UpToDate Hirsch MS Bloom;5(1):873.
Naimi et al.) 2015).Dispositional optimism and coping: a meta-analytic review. Pers Soc Psychol Rev; 10(3): 235-51..
Omidi, Rasoli, Aras.( 2019). The effectiveness of positive thinking training on self-efficacy, resilience and academic performance of secondary school girls in Kermanshah, Educational research paper.Educational research paper;60(14):1-18.
Paz C, Mascialino G, AdanaDíaz L, Rodríguez‐Lorenzana A, Simbaña Rivera K, Gómez Barreno L, et a.( 2020). Anxiety and depression in patients with confirmed and suspected COVID‐19 in Ecuador, Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences; 10(6), 214-219
Pui Hang Choi, Edmond, Bryant Pui Hung Hui, Yuk Fai Wan, Eric, . Depression and Anxiety in Hong Kong during COVID-19, http(2020);s://
Rajandram RK, Ho SM, Samman N, Chan N, McGrath C, Zwahlen RA.( 2011). a preliminary study. BMC research notes ;7-4:1.
Rajkumar RP. COVID-19 and mental health.(2020): A review of the existing literature. Asian J Psychiatry;52:102066. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066
Sabrina Kepka, Cédric Baumann, Amélie Anota, Gaelle Buron, .(2013).Pascal Auquier,Francis Guillemin, Mariette Mercier. The relationship between traits optimism and anxiety and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized for chronic diseases. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes; 11:134.
Salari N, Hosseinian-Far A, Jalali R, Vaisi-Raygani A, Rasoulpoor S, Mohammadi M, et al.(2020).Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during the COVID-19pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Globalization and health;16(1):11-1.
Seligman, Rashid and Park.(2004). The relationship between traits optimism and anxiety and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized for chronic diseases. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes; 11:134.
Soheila A, Nilofar A, Ali N.(2019) Investigating the effect of positive thinking training on stress, anxiety and depression of coronary heart disease patients .Family and Research Quarterly;16(2):67-82.
To K.K.W., Tsang O.T.Y., Yip C.C.Y.Consistent detection of .(2019).novel coronavirus in saliva.Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa149.February 12,2020.DOI:https://doi . .(2020);org/10.1093/cid/ciaa149.
Vickers KS, Vogeltanz ND.(2000).Dispositional optimism as a predictor of depressive symptoms over timePersonality and Individual Differences;28(2):72-259.
Yang L, Wu D, Hou Y, Wang X, Dai N, Wang G, et al. (2020). Analysis of psychological state and clinical psychological intervention model of patients with COVID-19. medRxiv.
Zhu H, Wei L, Niu P. (2020).The novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Global health research and policy;5:6
Zolfaghari A, Elahi T.(2020). Children's level of anxiety in relation to their level of awareness and attitude towards corona virus based on the health belief model and the level of stress, anxiety and depression of mothers. Journal of Research in Psychological Health;14(1):55-40.